1.When and where was Turgenev born?
A lot of interesting things can be said about the literary work of this outstanding personality… But in today’s article we will talk about Turgenev not as a writer, but as a biographer. interesting and lively. What are the early years of a prose writer like? Where was Turgenev born? In which city did you create your most famous works? Turgenew’s best books?
1.1 Who is ivan turgenev?
Ivan Turgenev is one of the world’s greatest authors. Thanks to his work, Russian literature in the 19th century became popular abroad. Moreover, the works of art created by Turgenev greatly influenced Western European fiction.
1.2 Turgenev birthplace
The writer is a representative of an aristocratic family of old. His father, Sergei Nikolaevich, served in the cavalry regiment. He leads a carefree lifestyle, known to be a handsome man who likes to live a lavish lifestyle. Perhaps, he was a rather pragmatic person, since in 1816 he married Varvara Lutovinova, the heir to a huge fortune. In the small village where Turgenev was born, this woman had a huge fortune. Now there is the state museum, will talk later.
1.3 What year was Turgenev born?
Ivan turgenev was born in 1818. Twelve years later, his father left the family – a marriage of interest that turned out to be unhappy. In 1834, Turgenev Sr. died.
1.4 Turgenev family
The mother of the novelist Turgenev was a difficult woman. In it, amazingly, the habit of serfdom coexisted with progressive views. Despotism still dominates her upbringing. It was said above in what year was Turgenev born. Varvara Lutovinova was only 25 years old at that time. She had two more sons – Nikolai and Sergei, who died at an early age from epilepsy.
This woman not only beat the serfs, but also beat her children. At the same time, she gave each of them an excellent education. The family speaks entirely in French. But the mother of the future writer was also not indifferent to Russian literature.
1.5 Where was Turgenev born?
Ten kilometers from Mtsensk there is a small settlement called Spasskoye-Lutovinovo… Now there is a museum-reserve dedicated to the life and work of the writer.
The Lutovinov family estate, where Turgenev was born, has a long and interesting history. One of the representatives of a long aristocratic family, the village of Spasskoye was endowed with Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. The settlement where Turgenev was born cannot be called a city. This is a small village, known today for its manor, which was converted into a museum in the 20th century. The history of the Lutovinovs estate is presented below. Let’s go back to the life and work of the author of “Spring Waters” and other great books.
1.6 Turgenev young
Early years The future writer lived on his mother’s estate until he was nine years old. It is noteworthy that a serf soldier instilled in him a love of literature. By the way, this man became the prototype for one of Turgenev’s characters. In 1822, the family went to Europe. Five years later, the Turgenevs settled in Moscow.
At the age of 15, Ivan entered the speech department, where Belinsky and Herzen were also studying at that time. However, Moscow University did not have a chance to graduate from Turgenev Ivan Sergeevich… Where did the idea of becoming a writer come from? This happened in St.Petersburg, where the family moved after the eldest son entered the artillery barracks of the guards. Ivan Turgenev transferred to the local university at the Faculty of Philosophy. Here he decided to attach his life to literature. However, at first I didn’t want to be a writer, but a poet.
1.7 Ivan Turgenev first love
Turgenev’s private life was fraught with difficulties from the very beginning. The young writer’s first love left many bitter aftertaste. Lady Katya, the daughter of Duchess Shakhovskaya who lives next door, captivated the 18-year-old Turgenev with her youth, innocence and innocence. But as it turned out, she was not at all pure and carefree like the image in the imagination of the boy in love. Once, Turgenev discovered that Katya had long had a mistress, moreover, her “best friend” was none other, but Mr. Sergey Turgenev, a famous local girl lover and … father of her older brother. Turgenev was shocked. Since then, every time he met Katya, he felt extremely disgusted.
Standing up after that shock, Ivan was disappointed in the “noble ladies” and went to find love in simple, honest serf girls. They gladly accepted the young noble’s attentions, he easily brought joy to them, kindled a warm fire in their eyes, and with them Turgenev felt that his affections were finally rewarded. . One of the serf girls, the beautiful Avdotya Ivanova, gave birth to the writer a daughter.
Turgenev took his daughter to live at his estate, intending to give her a decent education, and continue a happy life with Avdotya. But fate arranged otherwise.
1.8 The Beginning of Creation
turgenev was a nihilist and in 1834 Ivan Turgenev entered the third year of the Faculty of Philosophy. At this time, his literary debut took place. He wrote a dramatic poem, then showed his essay to the teacher. The professor of literature was quite strict with the work of the young author. Yes, he replied that there was “something” in the poem. These seemingly neutral words prompted Turgenev to write a number of poetic works. Some of them have been published in the journal Sovremennik.
Turgenev graduated from the University in 1836. Soon he received a candidate’s degree. In 1838 he set out for Germany, where he actively studied ancient languages, giving lectures on Greek and Roman literature. Turgenev met with Zhukovsky, Koltsov, Lermontov. Only a few meetings with later people, although not leading to close communication, had a definite influence on Turgenev.
The work abroad has a strong influence on the writer’s work. Turgenev came to the conclusion that only the assimilation of the foundations of universal human culture would be able to bring Russia out of the darkness in which it was immersed. Since then, he has become a loyal Westerner.
1.10 “Spring Water”
In 1839, the house in which Turgenev was born burned down. In which city was the writer at that time? He then lived in Frankfurt am Main… After hearing the news of the fire, he returned home. But soon he left his homeland again. In Germany, he once met a girl who made a strong impression on him. Returning home again, the writer sat down with the novel, which, after its publication, became famous around the world. It’s about the book “Spring Waters”.
During the forties, Turgenev became close to Annenkov and Nekrasov. At this time, he took an active part in the activities of the literary magazine “Sovremennik”. One of the issues published “Notes of a Hunter”. The success of the work was great, which inspired Turgenev to create other stories.
Turgenev was a staunch opponent of serfdom, which, according to many biographers, forced him to leave Russia frequently. However, in 1848, while in Paris, he witnessed revolutionary events that, as expected, were accompanied by bloodshed. Since then, he has forever hated the word “revolution”.
In the early 50s, Turgenev’s creativity flourished. Works such as “The Parasite”, “Breakfast at the Leader”, “A Month in the Countryside” have been published. The writer also worked with translations of Shakespeare and Byron. In 1855, Turgenev returned to Russia. Shortly before his arrival, Varvara Lutovinova passed away. The writer did not see his mother for the last time.
In the early fifties, Turgenev often visited St.Petersburg. After Gogol’s death, he wrote an obituary, which the censors did not miss. Then the writer sent his letter to Moscow, where it was successfully published. The authorities did not like the obituary, which the author went overboard with about the author of Dead Souls. Turgenev was sent into exile in Spasskoye-Lutovinovo.
True, there is an assumption that the reason for the dissatisfaction of the authorities was not at all a letter dedicated to the death of Gogol. In Russia, many people disliked the prose writer’s excessive radicalism, his questionable frequent foreign trips, his sympathetic tales of serfs.
With fellow writers, Turgenev did not always manage to find a common language. It is known that he left the magazine Sovremennik because of a conflict with Dobrolyubov. Turgenev loved to communicate with Western writers, to whom Leo Tolstoy belonged for some time. Turgenev had friendly relations with this writer. In 1861, however, a quarrel broke out between the prose writers, and almost ended in a duel. Turgenev and Tolstoy did not communicate for 17 years. The author of Father and Sons also had a difficult relationship with Goncharov and Dostoevsky.
1.13 Turgenev house
The land that once belonged to Turgenev’s mother is located in the Mtsensk region. After the death of Varvara Lutovinova, the writer ceded to his brother a house in Moscow and profitable estates. He himself became the owner of the family nest, where he spent the first years of his life. Turgenev lived in exile until 1853, but after his release he returned several times to Spasskoye. Fet, Tolstoy, Aksakov visited him at the estate.
The last time Ivan Turgenev visited the family estate was in 1881. The writer died in France. The heirs had moved most of their belongings out of the estate. It burned down in 1906. And 12 years later, Ivan Turgenev’s remaining property was nationalized.
2 Turgenev best books
2.1 Smoke (Turgenev novel)
“Both novels (“Smoke” and “New”) only show his growing apathy towards Russia, the first with its helpless bitterness, the second – with its lack of lack of information and a sense of realism in the depiction of the great movement of the 70s,” writes critic Dmitry Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
2.2 Poems in Prose Turgenev, Ivan Sergeevich
In the last years of his life, the writer achieved many brilliant achievements in Russia as well as abroad. Appeared a bunch of lyrical skits “Prose poems”. The book begins with the prose poem “Country”, and ends with the song “Russian language” – a famous song about belief in the great divinity of our Fatherland: “In the days of doubtful hearts. , in these heavy days thinking about the fate of the Fatherland, only you are my support and fulcrum, oh, the great, mighty, true and free Russian language!…But I can’t believe it! such a language is not for a great people!”. This volume is Turgenev’s farewell to life and art.
2.3 A Hunter’s Sketches turgenev